The ‘Sagrada Familia in Ice’ project started in march 2014 initiated by two master graduation students (Jordy Kern & Teun Verberne) and their tutor (Arno Pronk) from the Eindhoven University of Technology. The project is a continuation of the ‘Pykrete Dome’ project in which the ‘Sagrada Familia in Ice’ project team also participated. For more information about the ‘Pykrete Dome’ project please click here.
The ‘Sagrada Familia in Ice’ project team will be accompanied by a group of master students from the Eindhoven University of Technology from September 2014 until January 2015. Other students from other universities or volunteers are welcome to participate in the project and can contact us by using our contact information.
SAGRADA FAMILIA IN ICE
Ice is a well-known material, but as a building material it is quite uncommon. The goal of the project is to realize an ice structure which is based on the design of the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona. The design will consist of several domes. One dome will have a height of 30 meters, which will be the highest ice dome in the world.
In order to achieve such heights the use of reinforced ice will be needed. A mixture of wooden fibers and plain ice will result in an ice-composite, so called pykrete, that will be three times stronger than plain ice. Along the use of wooden fibers the use of textiles and ropes are also investigated to be used as a reinforcement for the ice structure.
The construction of the ice structure will start in the last week of December 2014 and will be finished in the second week of January 2015. The 'Sagrada Familia in Ice' will be built in the municipality of Juuka, Finland.
Project team member: Teun Verberne
Project team member: Jordy Kern
Project team member: Arno Pronk (Tutor)
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The inspiration for starting this project came during the realization of the ‘Pykrete Dome’ project. Each master student that participated in the project had to design and construct a side project. The design with frozen textiles and the design with a frozen reticulated net structure appeared to be perfect for a more freeform ice structure. This resulted in the collaboration between Jordy Kern and Teun Verberne.
Both the side projects of Teun Verberne and Jordy Kern were inspirited by the work of Heinz Isler, who is known for his work on (ice) shell structures.
Finished construction of the Pykrete Dome (photo by Bart van Overbeeke)
Side project by Teun Verberne (photo by Bart van Overbeeke)
Side project by Jordy Kern
Inspiration for side project by Heinz Isler
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The Design of the ‘Sagrada Familia in Ice’ is based on the design of the real Sagrada Familia by Antoni Gaudí. For more information on the Sagrada Familia please click here.
The Sagrada Familia is designed by a model with suspended chains, which is better known as catenary design. A suspended chain or rope will always get the shape of a smooth curve, meaning that the chain is only subjected to tension and absolutely no pressure.
If the curve of the chain is turned upside down it means the shape is only subjected to pressure and absolutely no tension. The principle of catenary design can be very interesting when building with ice, because ice has very low tensile strength.
The design of the ‘Sagrada Familia in Ice’ consists of the big tower with a height of 30m (34m with cross), the nave with a height of 12m and the four towers of 21m (2x) and 18m (2x).
Render Sagrada Familia in Ice
Render Sagrada Familia in Ice
Top view of the Sagrada Familia in Ice
Render of the Entrance of the Sagrada Familia in Ice
Section Longitudinal of the Sagrada Familia in Ice
Cross Section of the Sagrada Familia in Ice
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The big dome has a height of 30 meters (34 meters with cross). If we succeed constructing this tower it will the highest ice dome in the world! The span of the dome will be 12 meters and at the bottom of the dome the walls will reach a thickness of 2 meters.
18 METER DOME
The smallest dome/ tower of the Sagrada Familia in Ice. Both the the most left en the most right tower will have a height of 18 meters. The span of the domes will be 5 meters and will have wall thickness of approximately 1 meter.
21 METER DOME
The two middle towers have a height of 21 meters. The span of the domes will be 5 meters and will have wall thickness of approximately 1 meter.
The nave of the Sagrada Familia in Ice will be approximately 12 meter high. The columns will be constructed by freezing a rope structure and the roof will be constructed by freezing textile fabrics.
The main entrance of the Sagrada Familia in Ice is constructed by freezing textile fabrics. The main entrance will lead the visitor through the nave to the big tower.
Click on the dots for more information!
OVERVIEW CONSTRUCTION METHOD
A step by step walk-through of the construction process.
STEP 1 - PLACING ANCHORS FOR DOMES
The first step of the construction process is to drill the anchors. The Anchors are needed to secure the reticulated rope structure.
STEP 2 – PLACING ANCHORS FOR THE COLUMNS
The second step of the construction process is to place the anchors for the columns of the nave. All anchors will be drilled in the last week of November to ensure a full three week time span for creating the ice structure at the end of the year.
STEP 3 – PLACING INFLATABLES AND ROPE STRUCTURES
Next step is to lay out all the membranes and ropes.
STEP 4 – INFLATING MEMBRANES
Once the inflatables and ropes are correctly placed the inflation of the membranes can start.
STEP 5 – FULLY INFLATED MEMBRANES
The membranes are fully inflated. Now the creation of the ice layers can start.
STEP 6 – SUPPORTING ROPES
But not before the supporting ropes are correctly placed. The ropes keep the dome from moving when heavy wind is blowing on the inflatable.
STEP 7 – FIRST LAYERS OF PYKRETE
First a foundation is created with snow and water. Once the foundation is completely frozen first layers of pykrete can be applied. The pykrete is created by alternately spraying water (with wood fibers) and snow on the inflated membrane.
STEP 8 – FIRST LAYERS OF ICE
The lower part of the domes will be constructed out of Pykrete. The top part of the domes will be made from plain ice. The ice is also created by alternately spraying water and snow on the inflatable.
STEP 9 – FINISHED TOWERS
The towers will be completely covered in ice by repeating the process of alternately spraying water and snow on inflatable. The process will be stopped when the ice layer has reached its correct thickness.
STEP 10 – REMOVING SUPPORTING ROPES AND INFLATABLES
Once the ice has reached its correct thickness the supporting ropes and inflatables can be removed.
STEP 11 – SUPPORTING ROPES FOR NAVE
The next step will be the construction of the nave. Supporting ropes are suspended between the towers to create a base for the construction of the columns.
STEP 12 – ROPES AS MOLD FOR THE COLUMNS
A rope structure is suspended onto the supporting ropes to be used as an mold for the columns.
STEP 13 – CREATING COLUMNS
The columns are created by spraying water on the ropes. Layer for Layer ice will grow around the ropes creating big ice pillars.
STEP 14 – PLACING TEXTILE ROOF
The textile roof is strung between the supporting ropes and the columns below.
STEP 15 – CREATING ICE ROOF
The textile will be turned into ice by alternately spraying water and snow on top of it.
STEP 16 – ENTRANCE
Textiles are also used to construct the entrance of the Sagrada Familia in Ice. Again layers of ice are created by alternately spraying water and snow on the textile mold.
STEP 17 – FINISHED ICE CHURCH
By creating the cross on top of the highest tower the Sagrada Familia in Ice will be finished!
Like the ‘Pykrete Dome’ project the ‘Sagrada Familia in Ice’ will be constructed using reinforced ice. An ice-composite (pykrete), a mixture of wooden fibers and plain ice, will be used to give the ice three times more strength.
The nave of the ‘Sagrada Familia in Ice’ will be constructed by freezing suspended ropes and textile fabrics. These ropes and textiles will be like a mold and will also act like a reinforcement for the ice. This technique has been often applied in small ice structures by Heinz Isler.
The sifted sawdust (photo by Joep Rutgers)
Pykrete (photo by Bart van Overbeeke)
Mixing the Pykrete (photo by David Peskens)
Mixing the Pykrete (photo by Bart van Overbeeke)
Spraying the Pykrete (photo by Bart van Overbeeke)
Finished layer of reinforced ice (photo by Bart van Overbeeke)
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The ‘Sagrada Familia in Ice’ has to be built in a region where it's cold enough to construct an ice structure. Juuka, Finland, is one the coldest regions in Europe with temperatures ranging from -15 ⁰C to -30 ⁰C in winter. These temperatures are perfect for constructing an ice structure like the ‘Sagrada Familia in Ice’.
The ice structure will be built on private property owned by Tulikivi, world’s largest manufacturer of heat-retaining fireplaces.
Address of building site:
83900 Juuka, Finland
Tulikivi building site
Render on Tulikivi building site at daytime
Render on Tulikivi building site at nighttime
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